Principles of Historical Writing: Thinking Like an Historian
As Richard Marius and Melvin E. Page attest in their book A Short Guide to Writing About History, "history and writing are inseparable." How would we know of past events if it they had never been documented? Even the stories and myths of ancient cultures, many of which relied heavily on the oral tradition, were subject to intense transformations after years of repetition. Writing, therefore, is what propels information and ideas into permanence, or what are customarily referred to as 'the annals of history."
Still, writing about history requires careful scrutiny. This is not to say that historical writing is particularly difficult or complicated, but it does require thought processes that some may be unaccustomed to. Indeed, unique questions must be considered, and the first step to answering such questions involves thinking as an historian. Outlined below are seven principles of historical thinking and writing that, if followed, will ensure that your mind is on the right track.
When preparing to write for a history course, do not simply rush into the writing process! Dr. Hugh West, chair of the history department, finds that many students underprepare for their writing assignments. When considering an idea or ideas that you'd like to explore, think ahead. Ask yourself, is my proposed idea or argument feasible? What obstacles might I encounter during the writing process? Should I research more about my topic?
As you consider such questions, be sure to organize your thoughts on paper before you begin writing. Different strategies work for different people--some prefer writing complete and detailed outlines, while others prefer 'blocking' their ideas together in a web of interrelated concepts. However you would like to approach this, be sure to write down new and useful ideas as you think of them. Don't let them escape your immediate attention by turning to another point...write them down!
On the home page of this writing handbook lies a quotation from Francis Parkman which stresses the importance of being aware of the contemporary context of the time period about which you are writing. For example, when rationalizing or explaining the actions of past individuals, it is important to take into account the standards of thinking and prevailing ideologies of the times. As Parkman suggested, a writer must become a "sharer or spectator of the action that he describes."
Be sure to keep in mind the essential questions
This principle also concerns the use of voice. In general, when writing in history, the use of the past tense is preferred.
Evidence is what legitimizes your prose. In acquiring such evidence, be sure to:
The consideration of evidence, and the best ways of approaching it, will be discussed in further detail in the next section.
There is such a wealth of knowledge throughout history that focusing your topic is essential to performing reasonable historical analysis. Often, historians utilize specific, focused research to answer broader topics.
For example, you might be interested in researching Winston Churchill, but entire books have been published analyzing Churchill's life and actions. Instead, you might narrow your focus toward Churchill's leadership during World War II. Even then, you may find that your topic is too broad. You might narrow it even further by focusing on Winston Churchill and his policy towards a particular country or region in World War II. You might be surprised to find the wealth of information that would be available to you.
In the course of performing your research, keep in mind that you may have to refocus or realign your topic or thesis as you delve further into sources. If you find evidence that seems to contradict the argument that you intend to make, it would be better to alter your argument to take that new information into account than it would be to ignore it and move forward with your original argument.
This principle is particularly true in cases where personal biases might tend to dictate one's aims in writing. Attempt to rid yourself of partial or biased opinions when approaching a topic for research. Dr. Treadway stresses that the goal of a historian should be to tell, ostensibly, what happened objectively. Objectivity, therefore, is of paramount importance when considering evidence.
Historians must keep their audience in mind when writing. In the case of undergraduate students, in particular, keep in mind that you are writing a paper to be turned into a professor who has likely outlined very specific expectations. If you are ever unsure of something regarding an assignment, contact the professor, don't simply assume that one way is to suffice over another. Keep the following ideas handy when "minding your audience":
While the consideration, and sometimes reiteration, of the thoughts and ideas of other authors is extremely useful, a history student should always strive to add a personal element to their argument. This may seem like a daunting task... you may ask, "how am I to come up with an idea which professional historians have not yet written of?" Yet this process is not as difficult as it may seem. Take the time to acknowledge the arguments that others have made, but also look for new connections, relationships, or subtleties that may be relevant to the topic about which you are writing.
Dr. Eric S. Yellin offers particular advice with regard to this principle: