Audible voice  Is there a spoken sound tangled up in the words that fastens to the page for the ear of the imagination?
 Dramatic voice  What kind of person do we hear in the text? This is a completely orthodox concept in literary criticism: not the real author but the "speaker" or "implied author."
 Distinctive, recognizable voice  Does the writer have a kind of trademark voice? The concept of distinctive voice does not imply that the writing sounds like a person's actual biographical self. Just that a writer has a distinctive, trademark voice.
 Authoritative voice  
Does the text show an ability or willingness to speak out? -- be heard? A writer can speak out with vigorous authority without giving any kind of picture of his "real identity."
 Resonant voice  
This involves the relation between the language and the identity of the actual writer. This is the voice with implications of "true self" or "real self."

(Elbow Lightning 3)


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